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Friday, September 19, 2008

Vasai Fort (Baçaim, Bassein)

Basai, Baçaim, Bajipur, Bassein or the present day Vasai is at a distance of 50 km's from Mumbai to the North. For quite some time I have been planning to visit the ruined fort, chapels etc at that place. Finally on Sunday the 31st August 2008 I could make it. Along with my friend, Murthy, I boarded a train from Dadar (West) going towards Virar. We were at Vasai Road station in less than an hour. The bus stand is nearer to the station. Although there are buses going straight to the fort, it entailed a long wait. We then decided to proceed to Vasai village for which a bus was about to leave. We boarded that bus and reached the village. We came across a restaurant just across the local bus stand. We thought of filling out our stomachs before we proceed further. After the fill, we looked around the village. It was picturesque with plenty of vegetation all around. We felt as if we are out of Mumbai - indeed we were. I also recharged my mobile phone at one of the road side shops and caught an auto to take us to the fort site. We were charged Rs.20/- and were off loaded at the Vasai pier (Boat Jetty) over looking the Vasai creek. We looked around and located the entrance to the fort from that end.

Basai (as it was known) already had a Fort under the control of Bahadur Shah, the Sultan of Gujarat. It was a significant trading centre in the west coast for times immemorial. Portuguese, with a formidable Navy, were trying to possess Diu and were continuously attacking the coastal territories, inflicting great losses. Finally they overran the defences of Basai and procured the fort along with Bombay and other adjoining areas, under a treaty signed with the Sultan of Gujarat on 23rd December 1534. In the second half of the 16th century, they reconstructed the fort on a grand scale with 10 bastions and named it Baçaim. This fort became the Portuguese Head Quarters of Indian Operations. The entire town was within the fort walls. It was known for the splendor of it's buildings, palaces and for the beauty of it's churches.

The importance of Baçaim was reduced due to Bombay getting transferred to the British under the famous wedding treaty of 1665 (Catherine Braganza of Portugal to Charles the Second of England). After the Portuguese rule of over 200 years the fort fell into the hands of Marathas. Chimaji Appa, younger brother of the Maratha ruler Baji Rao Peshwa, after a prolonged campaign defeated the Portuguese in May 1739 at a very heavy price - 12000 dead. The casualty on the Portuguese side was less than 1000. It was the magnanimity of the Marathas who allowed the portuguese to march out of the town honourably. However, all the Churches and buildings were destroyed. The Church bells were carried away as souvenirs and got installed at Bhimashankar, Naroshanker (Nasik) and at Asta Vinayaka temple, Ballaleshwar (Sudhagad - Raigad). Baji Rao II on his defeat at the hands of Yashwant Rao Holkar, took refuse in this very fort in 1801.The fort also got renamed as Bajipura or Bajipur. In December 1802 he signed the treaty of Bassein with the British, who in turn helped getting him reinstalled as Peshwa. Eventually the fort came under the British rule and got renamed as Bassein.

This is all about the history of the fort in brief. When we entered the gate from the boat jetty side, there was an eerie feeling. Despite being a Sunday, there were hardly any visitors. There was wild growth all around. Prominent among them were hundreds of date palms every where. We walked through the narrow path, amidst the ruined structures. Some of the façades, are very well decorated with carved stones. But there are some, which have lost their identity. There were some Churches in ruins, which are still recognizable. The roofing of one of them seemed like a barrel. Navigating ourselves through the undergrowth, we tried to explore as much as possible. Since the area being very wide, we could not venture into looking at many of the remains from close quarters. Perhaps the month of August was not very conducive for exploring the site. The fort as it is, suffers from gross neglect. No efforts appear to have been made for any kind of restoration. Elsewhere in the country, the ASI is doing a commendable job but when we look at Vasai, one can only cry in dismay.

Photos Courtesy: Himanshu Sarpotdar For a Hindi version Click Here


  1. This article on Vasai Fort is quite interesting.

    Many Blessings!!


  2. vijayanvkm@yahoo.co.ukSeptember 22, 2008 at 3:42 PM

    Your articles on Bartia Bhata & Vasai Fort
    provide interesting reading - all historical pieces!!

    I felt moved reading them!!

    They are quite insightful..

  3. Thank you for the beautiful description of our visit to Vasai fort. I wonder your minute observation on the fort and the surrounding. You observed lot of things which I have missed.

  4. Bhai saha I also have visited of vasai fort in 2004. Now i am in dehradun

  5. Muito interessante!
    Baçaim foi o 16º elo da cadeia (chain) hospitalar entre Tavira (sul de Portugal) e Goa. Essa cadeia teve 17 hospitais mas não consegui descobrir em que ano foi instalado o Hospital de Baçaim.
    Pode ajudar-me?
    Henrique Salles da Fonseca

  6. Henrique Salles da FonsecaMarch 12, 2010 at 12:45 PM

    Very interesting!
    Bassein was the 16th link in the chain (chain) hospital between Tavira (southern Portugal) and Goa. This chain has 17 hospitals but could not figure out what year it was installed in the Hospital of Bassein.
    Can you help me?
    Thank you,
    Henrique da Fonseca Salles

  7. @henrique salles da fonseca
    i can help u out...if you can explain me clearly what you want...
    i stay at vasai (bassein) and a part of a social group that is trying to spread awareness of the bassein fort.
    u can also mail me at meghakamothi@gmail.com