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Tuesday, April 20, 2010

Kanheri Caves (Mumbai)

Several years ago while trying to locate the footprints of the Satavahana rule in Dakshina Kosala, I learnt about their inscriptional evidences  at Kanheri, Naneghat and Nashik (Pandav Leni) rock cut caves. I was curious to visit these holy places of the Buddhist regime, from that time onwards, so as to spend some moments living in the ancient past.
Although I have visited Mumbai numerous times, my friends over there were either reluctant or uninterested to take me to Kanheri (Krishna Giri) which was otherwise comfortably reachable. Last year during a routine visit to Mumbai I made up my mind to visit Kanheri Caves by myself. Moreover, my son was also with me. Incidentally my younger brother in law got enthused to accompany us. On one morning after breakfast, we three of us, boarded a suburban train from Dadar (West) and landed at Borivli within 30/40 minutes. Fearing that we may have to remain hungry, we located a good restaurant and had our fill. While we were out of the restaurant, we spotted a vacant auto which took us to the main gate of the Sanjay Gandhi National Park. We got inside the main gate after buying the entry tickets. We were happy to see a Tourism Development Corporation bus parked inside, which takes people to the Kanheri Caves, situated 6 kilometers deep inside the park. Unfortunately there were few people around  and the driver bluntly told us that the bus wont move unless there are adequate number of passengers. We were loosing time. Fortunately a van entering the park stopped by our side and offered us a lift for Rs.100. We readily agreed and boarded the van. The vehicle entered the dense forest winding its way through the lush greenery. The surrounding flora and fauna and the forest smell was a feast to our eyes and nostrils. Well here is a place in Mumbai where people can breathe fresh air and revitalize themselves. Within 10 minutes,  there appeared a hoarding of the Archaeological Department with a booth dispensing entry tickets. We were dropped at this point asking us to be back within 2 hours. The vehicle then pulled itself to the parking place. We bought the necessary tickets and took the stairs carved out on the surface of  hard volcanic rock.

Kanheri is the largest Buddhist site in India  in terms of the number of caves made in a single hill.  In the western part of India, Buddhism was introduced at Sopara which was once the capital of Aparantaka (North Konkan) way back in the 3rd Century BC. From that time onwards Kanheri being closer to Sopara was developed as a seat of learning for the Heenayana branch of Buddhism. Later it also continued to play its educational role for the Mahayana branch as well. Its history spans from as early as 3rd Century BC to as late as 11th Century AD. That makes it a unique site  that has gone through the rise and decline of Buddhism in India. The earliest rock cut cells, devoid of images or any other ornamentation, dates back to that period of Heenayana form of Buddhism. On the other hand the cells and Viharas (monasteries) with Buddha’s images and other designs belong to the Mahayana cult. Chiseling the hill and making monasteries etc. has however  continued up to the 9th Century AD.

Having completed climbing our first phase of the stairs. we found ourselves in a relatively leveled ground with the rock cut structures staring at us. At first sight we had a notion of having seen similar structures elsewhere. Then we recalled the Petra in Jordan which we never visited but had seen them through movie clips/photographs.There were many people exploring that particular structure. We also proceeded in that direction. It was a Chaitya Griha.
 This top one  is  at Kanheri
 This is the one at Karla (Lonavla)
Outwardly it did not look ornate but when we entered, it was a stunning experience. At the point of entry itself, there stood two Buddha’s on either side of the porch. They are supposed to be the tallest images in India.  A very large hall with an arched  roof (barrel vaulted) at the end of which there was a stupa with a semispherical top, the object of worship in the Chaitya. There were ornate pillars on either side. I loudly said “I shall cherish this experience” to which my brother in law reminded me of another such Chaita Griha at Karla near Lonavla. The Chaitya Griha there is said to be much more larger and beautiful. In fact it is the  largest cave Chaitya in India whereas the one at Kanheri is reckoned as the second largest.

Once after getting rid of my emotions/notions, I started discovering faults. Yes, the six pillars at the right end were simply square, there was nothing great about them. Also the pillars lacked symmetry. Anyway this was the place for the monks to meditate and referred to as Cave No.3. One of the most important ones at Kanheri. It is 26.36 meters long, 13.66 meters wide and 12.9 meters high. This was made during the reign of the Satavahana ruler Yajn Shri Satkarni (172 – 201 AD). However he was a Hindu ruler but was tolerant towards Buddhism or else he would not have funded this project. As an evidence he has left his inscription in Brahmi script of that period.

Two structural stupas existed near the Chaitya Griha (Shrine). One was built of stone and when dug up, it yielded two copper urns containing  ash, a small golden box with a piece of cloth, a silver box containing rubies, pearls, some golden pieces and a copper plate of the year 324 AD. The second stupa was built of bricks which yielded a stone slab bearing inscriptions in a script which was prevalent in the 5th/6th Century.

It seemed that we had spent considerable time at this chaitya Griha alone and realized that we need to speed up. We swiftly proceeded to the adjacent Cave No.1 which was planned as a two storied structure but remained unfinished. It has huge pillars. Next to it there was the Cave No.2, a small one. There is a stupa inside and the walls adorn Buddha as well as Avalokiteswara.
Cave No.1
Cave No.2
Though the cave clusters are scattered in random, many of them are aligned along some sort of terrace that makes it a common courtyard. The footpaths are connected from such cluster to cluster. In  many cases , especially as you proceed deep into the site, you've to scale the steps carved on the rocky surface to reach the caves. It dawned on us that we may not be able to see all that the place offers, for paucity of time. A fellow tourist advised us that apart from Cave No's.1, 2 and 3 Caves numbered as 11, 41, 67, 89 and 90 have sculptures carved on their walls. Therefore we hurriedly proceeded towards Cave No.11. This is referred to as the Darbar Hall. There is a stupa inside and on both sides there are Cells for residential purposes. Many viharas have benches and seats carved as integral part of the caves. Several inscriptions could also be encountered on its walls. Cave No.41 is said to be unique where Avalokiteswara is represented with 4 hands and 11 heads. Such an iconography of this sage is not obtainable anywhere in India. Avalokiteswara is said to have declined Enlightenment unless salvation of all the lesser mortals comes along.In the walls of Cave No.67 there are sculptures carved out representing the Jataka stories. 
Darbar Hall

Inscription of Satavahanas
All these Cells and/or Viharas have a pillared verandah in the front. A cistern is located in the courtyard right next to the entrance of a cave. They served as water storage tanks for the daily use of the residents. We could  see the grooves and channel networks that direct rainwater to the cisterns. What is thus collected during the monsoon season could be preserved in the cistern for the summer. There are even some large open ponds excavated on the surface of the rock. Probably these served as community utility for bathing and washing clothes. Right beneath, at the cleft of two hilly formations is the remains of a dam. Here too the water stored was for community usage and for agriculture. A very beautiful example of water management by our ancestors.
Water Channel
There is a long stairway to the top of the hill, carved in the hard rock, in a superbly preserved condition. At the top there is a large cremation ground where the monks were being cremated. Number of structural  stupas, small and large made of bricks  reportedly exist there. However we had to contain our temptation and had to return from Cave No.67. When we were back at the parking site of our vehicle, we found the driver blowing up. 
Steps leading to the top of the hill
Again at Borivli we caught a local train to take us back to Dadar and from there we hired a taxi to be back at home at Chembur by 7.30 PM. We need to visit again.


  1. In all these years of living in bombay, I have never visited these caves... have heard a lot about them, but as it happens, no one seems enthusiastic enough to accompany me to such places, and it isnt all that safe to go alone into the national park...... but now, after reading this one, i will have to make a special effort to go there.. thanks for the encouragement...

  2. I have been to both these places. But did not go to top of hill. It was pouring when visited Kanheri caves and there were lots of monkeys.

    In this picture Chaita Griha at Karla looks more beautiful but in actual, it stinks. It's not as bright as it looks here and hence has become urinal for locals. One can not just stand behind the pillars.

    1. yes you are right, but I had visited that place around 16 years ago, then also the place was stinking, its surprising to know that its still like previous days, when did u visit? I am willing to visit this place again because the caves are very interesting. Amit KB

    2. U r right, but I had been to theses caves around 16 yrs ago, its surprising that still this place is like previous days only, then also it was stinking. But Id like to visit the place again as I found these caves very very interesting.

  3. Fascinating information about little known caves. There is one more place to visit in Mumbai! Thank you!!

  4. Very informative and wonderful shots. Next time in Mumbai, I will definitely visit this place. This post will be my guide to this place.

  5. Looks brilliant. The charity griha picture is fantastic. Good to know that such places are there to help us urban and polluted souls...

  6. wow! sir,
    thanks for sharing.......

  7. Wonderful post
    your country is beautiful :))

    Have a relaxing sunday
    Anya :)

  8. Hi PNS:)

    This is a wonderful post with lovely photos giving a deep insight into our past especially Buddhism. The trouble our ancestors took to carve out rocks into beautiful everlasting structures is spellbinding. The religious tolerance of our ancestors is also amazing.

    No doubt, these lovely structures stand as mute but impressive testimony to the wonderful skill,creativity,foresight and visions of our ancestors.We are an incredible country of rich tapestry and your well researched post is an ample evidence of this.

    Your step by step narration backed with photos made me feel as though I was with you on this interesting, informative and educative visit.

    Best wishes:)

  9. Hi,

    Thanks for visiting my webpage .... you have an informative blogs.....This is Sundar Palaniappan and these days, i am trying to sell my photos to a Bangalore based firm... so currently, i am not in a position to share the photos....Sorry for that....

    Sundar Palaniappan

  10. Hi P.N.! Wonderful post. Excellent pictures... Another site to include in my list... ;)

    What about Ephesus? Blogtrotter Two has it... ;) Enjoy and have a great week!!

  11. Hi PNS:)

    Greetings and good wishes:)

    Many many thanks for the interesting comments written by you in my posts.

    I look forward to reading more of your well researched adventures.

    Best wishes:)

  12. This caves, with Bhaja and Karle, are in my list when I visit Maharashtra. Your article will surely guide me and help in understanding it better. Thanks a lot.

  13. though i had briefly heard about this place while living in Bombay, history posed no interest for me then, now i regret it reading your lovely travel notes ..it was a certain miss for me. maybe another day, i hope. The forgotten Buddhist & jainist traditions of India are a revelation..

  14. Hi P.N.! Thanks for your comments at Blogtrotter Two, which has Ephesus Masterpieces for you to enjoy; I’m sure you’ll be impressed!! Have a great weekend!!

  15. They say the Kanheri caves and the Karla caves near Lonavala has some similarity and some connection too.

  16. Beautiful narration with cool pics and fascinating steps.

  17. बहुत ही रोचक जानकारी है, आभार।
    क्या आप बता सकते हैं कि इंसान और साँप में कौन ज़्यादा ज़हरीला होता है?
    अगर हाँ, तो फिर चले आइए रहस्य और रोमाँच से भरी एक नवीन दुनिया में आपका स्वागत है।

  18. Hi PNS:)

    Many, many thanks for your regular visits, words of encouragement and keeping me motivated.

    Wish you all the best:)

  19. I came back to see this one! It's marvelous!! Awesome pictures of a gorgeous place!!

  20. It reminds me of eygpt, probably Abu simble, Wow and this is right in Mumbai. I am marking this presently for a future visit. thanks

  21. बहुत खूबसूरत और श्रमसाध्य कार्य !

  22. This is a wonderful place. The spots showns are unanimous and needs to be appreciated by everyone.

    Bpo Services

  23. Dear Subramanian, I've been puzzled for years about that chhattri in the Karle cave. Do you think it could be more than 1000 yrs old?
    by the way, spent a day in the desert w Bishnois way back in '86, taken by Marwar uncle Swaroop Singhji, think he's now deceased.
    Lovely people, but oddly, they smoke opium.

  24. @Injamaven.
    Dear Cathie, I have not visited Karle Caves as yet. However, It appears that the Chaitya there was well maintained. The Chhatri could not have withstood the vagaries of weather for such a long time. Could have been renovated and I doubt if it is even 500 years old.

  25. These images of ancient religious artifacts from India in India are very impressive
    and quite beautiful. What is even more amazing is the history of how these
    same religions from India transferred by dedicated monks of old took these same
    religions, culture and art to all or almost all of the known world and then in some cases to points beyond. For one of those possible points beyond check out this
    possible stupa half a world away. Google: "along highway 191 in southern Utah
    church rock" This possible ancient stupa in N America has a similarity to the
    Rhamek Stupa and several other stupas in India. If you google the photo image
    I have recommended above please look at what appears to be the carved image
    To the upper right of the carved arched entrance. To me that carved image
    looks very much like the image carved on the stupa in the KANHERI CAVES.
    If this is of interest to you google "church/ stupa rock Utah" images for amazing
    photos of this possible stupa. Several ancient stupas and religious structures
    from India have been located in the last 200 years. Religions and cultures may
    change over time as populations and beliefs shift but religious symbols carved
    Into rock traverse the passage of the ages with minimal deterioration and that's
    what's truly amazing.

  26. Rock parasols on the top of stupas are as old as ancient India Buddhism itself.
    However not everyone is familiar with the eight major symbols of Buddhism of
    which the PARASOL is one. That is why this rock formation in Utah was not
    recognized for what I believe it is and was created to be and was called Mexican
    Hat Rock Utah instead. http://www.fotosearch.com/UNZ385/u12877031/
    For another interesting image in S. Utah that looks like a Stone Henge type rock
    formation on the top of a hill.

  27. Buddhism no longer has the religious and cultural influence it once had in India,
    Pakistan, Afghanistan, Greece, Indonesia and other places perhaps still unknown
    but in it's early days it was an extremely powerful religion with devotees that were determined to leave a mark for Buddha wherever they went that would last
    a long long time. They did exactly that with such a passion that now as we look back at their accomplishments we often have to catch our breath in amazement
    and right now I'm just talking about their architecture. Wow! In the last 200 or
    less years enormous ancient Buddhist structures have been rediscovered and
    studied. The number of these finds and finds now being made is staggering.
    We are fortunate that India and most other countries have an appreciation of
    the efforts of the ancients from at least a historical perspective even when those
    views are different from the views we ourselves hold. We are also fortunate that
    learned men and women have spent their lives researching these finds and
    documenting their research. Because of their work and it's easy access via the
    Internet within minutes we can learn information it took them a lifetime to prepare. One such article is "Buddhist Architecture in India" and all 17 pages
    can be googled It's interesting reading but if you want to cut to the chase then
    just scroll down to Rock Cut Caves around page 17 of the article. "The superstructure of the stupas is invariably missing, but it can be visualized by
    contemporary plastic representations ......". Cave Architecture. Page 19
    "The rock-cut architecture, initiated by Asoka in the third century B.C. blossomed
    from second century B.C. Onwards into a powerful and popular architectural
    mode .........". Page 20. Later Buddhist Caves of Western India 500-642 A.D.
    Take a deep breath read the following and then compare it to what you see in the image of Church Rock as seen in the photo when you google: "along highway 191 in southern Utah church rock"
    "It's facade has only one doorway instead of the usual three". and "But the focal
    point of the entire composition is the large canopied figure of Buddha". Page 22
    image of Church Rock

  28. http://www.flickr.com/photos/15197746@N03/3424222571/
    In my opinion this may be an image of the ancient evangelizing Buddhist king of
    India himself---Ashoka. For another possible image of Ashoka google: "The
    Akkadian King geoglyph". It's in the Henriette Mertz Collection of Geoglyphs in
    Colorado. The size of this geoglyph is huge almost to the point of disbelief. These were mountains that were disassembled in the process of carving these
    images. Interestingly the location of Longs Peak appears to have been mentioned in the 4300 year old Shan Hai Jing as one of an expeditions 12
    major encampments. This location was reported to have very large gold deposits. Is it possible that as they were mining for gold at this location that they
    were also at the same time purposely carving these geoglyphs. If that is what
    happened the geoglyphs had a higher priority to the ancients than the gold
    because they stopped digging for gold or anything else when the geoglyphs
    were finished. If this explanation sounds farfetched to you what explanation do
    you have

  29. As awe inspiring and beautiful as the cave temples of India are it needs to be understood that all those architectual styles and techniques did not originate in India. Major parts of those designs came from Greece, Rome, Persia and Jordon (Petra). Just three years after Alexander the Great died and created a power vacuum Chandragupta Mauryan (King Ashoka's grandfather) conquered
    most of India. When he swept into power in India he brought with him influences from Greece and the Mediterranean area. This included art and architectual methodology such as arches, columns and rock carving techniques from that area. These were quickly absorbed into ancient India's culture and vigorously spread when King Ashoka converted to Buddhism and sent missionary teams around the known world. (Lycian Influence to the Indian Cave Temples)
    For an example of what I believe is a stupa in N. America google:
    "church stupa rock utah little wolf"
    Anyone can make assertions about Hindu/Buddhist travel from ancient
    India but these assertions are more seriously considered when they come from established sources over hundreds of years. Google this
    for evidence of ancient travel from India: "India on Pacific Waves
    Hindu Wisdom" For an American geoglyph depicting Nataraja go to:

  30. Mandalas predate Buddhism in India. They are an extremely important symbol to both religions and were apparently taken
    to the places where religous devotees of either religion went to travel and evangelize. Mandalas (prayer circles) were/are so
    important that numerous ancient stupas were constructed so that they could only been seen from the sky (one has to wonder why and how were they then seen).
    Its more than a little puzzling then how mandalas become such a
    powerful spiritual force in North America. Google: "Native American Mandalas" for more information on this topic. Here in
    North America our Native Americas did/do "sand paintings" just like they did in ancient Tibet. Other than the sand paintings
    the ancient North American expressions of the mandala are known as
    Medicine Wheels and Medicine Shields. How do you explain how the
    mandala reached the Americas so very long ago?

  31. I recently returned from a trip to the American southwest looking for evidence of ancient civilizations especially
    Buddhism in ancient America. I found much material that I will share in the coming weeks. Today I will say that
    I visited Newspaper Rock Utah and while there I noticed numerous footprints and concentric circles carved by
    the ancients into the rock face. This is potentially significant because these footprints and circles may be tied to
    Buddhism. Buddhapada is a major Buddhist study area into the topic of the images of the carved footprints of
    Buddha as a symbol of the places where Buddha either travelled or where his devotees went to share his message. Concentric circles are at the basis of the Buddhist mandala. Why do they show up on Newspaper
    Rock when there is no record that indicated that Native Americans used the wheel for any other purpose than
    carving them into this rock and their use in "sand paintings", the medicine wheel and medicine shields?

  32. I need your help! All or almost all Ancient Buddhist rock carved stupas had a temple water tank and a water
    diversion system to bring the water either to the tank or away from the tank to prevent flooding in and around the temple. This technology has been in India for centuries prior to the Common Era. That is documented. Experts
    on this subject in India today still study the ancient technology to help them trap and preserve water in arid areas.

    I have taken extensive pictures of what I believe is an ancient water diversion system here in N America. I need
    to find an expert from India in these ancient water systems to review my pictures and tell me their thoughts on
    whether or not what I have identified could possibly be a system done in the ancient India style. Only an expert
    in this field is qualified to render such an opinion. Can you help me find such an expert to render that opinion?
    If you can help I would be most appreciative.

  33. I came to this post from another post accidentally.. Glad I did.. Wonderful PNS..!

  34. For more possible evidence of ancient India art in North America google --"The King Arches National Park Utah".
    Is this rock formation a Persian Manticore well known in ancient India or simply an eroded rock with facial features in all the appropriate places on all three exposed sides of this rock? Check it out and decide for yourself.

  35. The Manji (swastika) is an important ancient symbol associated with both the Hindu and Buddhist religions which originated in India. Then isn't it amazing that the Manji not only shows up in pre-Columbian North America used by the Navajo and Hopi Native American tribes but the names that they used for the Manji in their own native languages were identical or practically identical to the literal translation from Sanskrit which is "Whirlwind". The Navajo called this symbol the "Whirling" Logs but the Hopi called it what it has always been called in Asia-"The Whirlwind". How could that be a coincidence? If it is called a coincidence how do you then explain "The Seven Step Seven Vow Wedding Ceremony" also from India
    still being used in North America by Native Americans to this very day?

  36. The number 108 is significant in all Vedic based
    religions including Buddhism. Why is it that Univ.
    of Colorado scholar Dr Stepen Lekson for years has
    been working on the mystery of why the Pre-Columbian North America Anasazi people constructed their major settlements along the 108th
    Meridian West? Could it be the answer may be because these people had a Vedic belief system-
    possibly Buddhism?

  37. The number 108 is significant in all Vedic based
    religions including Buddhism. Why is it that Univ.
    of Colorado scholar Dr Stepen Lekson for years has
    been working on the mystery of why the Pre-Columbian North America Anasazi people constructed their major settlements along the 108th
    Meridian West? Could it be the answer may be because these people had a Vedic belief system-
    possibly Buddhism?

  38. The number 108 is significant in all Vedic based religions including Buddhism. Then why was it that the ancient Anasazi culture (100 CE to 1300 CE) built their most important settlements along the 108th Meridian West in North America? Dr. Stephen Lekson of the University of Colorado has spent many years studying these trends and has written books dealing with this subject. His research makes it clear that these people at the time mentioned were aware of the meridians and that is why their major settlements were positioned north and south of each other along that line.
    To my knowledge he has not mentioned a Vedic/Buddhist connection to his research. However, of all the meridians to select from why did these ancient people happen to select this one which today is known around the world as the 108th Meridian West. If that's a coincidence then how about the Seven Step wedding here as
    well as the mandalas, manji, mantras and numerous monuments that point to a Vedic influence. Where the Anasazis Buddhists? At some point reasonable minds have to acknowledge that this cluster of Vedic customs, symbols and architectural styles can now longer be explained away as a simple coincidence but is a definite emerging pattern.

  39. Very few people know about Chattras and the role they played as The
    Parasol for ancient Buddhism. They are known as "mushroom rocks" in North America and are thought to be natural rock formations. You and I know better than that. Google: "Mushroom Rock State Park Kansas" and Google: "Bisti Badlands New Mexico" for a site that has more beautiful remains of Chattras than you'll ever see in your lifetime. In that same area you will see several places where petrified logs are set up on earthen foundations. Amazing! Google: "Were the Anasazi People Buddhist?"

  40. "Were the Anasazi People Buddhist?" Who could believe such a thing? The Dalai Lama, head of Vajrayana (Tibetan) Buddhism, recently wrote a letter of endorsement in the front of a book on the topic of the striking similarities between the faith and culture of the Navajo Native American tribe and Tibetan Buddhism. This book is "Navajo and Tibetan Sacred Wisdom: The Circle of the Spirt" by Peter Gold. The Navajo and Hopi tribes live in the exact area once occupied by the now departed Anasazi culture who left in approximately 1300 AD. These same two tribes are also the tribes that have carried on the sacred Buddhism symbol of the Manji (swastika) to this day. Isn't it safe to say that as His
    Holiness allowed his name to be used in this book that he believes this hypothesis or at a minimum leans in that direction? Gene Matlock, Stephen Knapp, my father, Dr. Hendon Harris, Jr. and numerous others have written in support of this theory but they have all been largely ignored by mainstream academia. Why do you think western civilization is having such a hard time with this?
    I believe you know why?

  41. "Were the Anasazi People Buddhist?" Who could believe such a thing? The Dalai Lama, head of Vajrayana (Tibetan) Buddhism, recently wrote a letter of endorsement in the front of a book on the topic of the striking similarities between the faith and culture of the Navajo Native American tribe and Tibetan Buddhism. This book is "Navajo and Tibetan Sacred Wisdom: The Circle of the Spirt" by Peter Gold. The Navajo and Hopi tribes live in the exact area once occupied by the now departed Anasazi culture who left in approximately 1300 AD. These same two tribes are also the tribes that have carried on the sacred Buddhism symbol of the Manji (swastika) to this day. Isn't it safe to say that as His
    Holiness allowed his name to be used in this book that he believes this hypothesis or at a minimum leans in that direction? Gene Matlock, Stephen Knapp, my father, Dr. Hendon Harris, Jr. and numerous others have written in support of this theory but they have all been largely ignored by mainstream academia. Why do you think western civilization is having such a hard time with this?
    I believe you know why?

  42. Have you ever considered publishing an e-book or guest authoring on other blogs?
    I have a blog based upon on the same information you discuss and would really like to have you share some stories/information.
    I know my subscribers would value your work. If you're even remotely interested, feel free to shoot me an e-mail.

    Here is my blog post: voyance en direct

  43. Chessboard grids and domino grid geoglyphs are showing up in North America. The alternating grid pattern that was eventually to become what the western world knows as the modern chessboard originated in ancient China as the game of Shi (Yi). Later this grid was to evolve in India to become what we know as the modern chessboard. Either way this grid pattern came from Asia. You can see this ancient pattern in North America yourself by googling: "The Joseph Needham Chessboard Grid Collection", "The John Fairbairn Alberta Go Board" and "The Homer Dubs Priest Lake Chessboard Grids".
    The Game of Dominoes also came from China. The game was either completely refined or was invented in 12th Century China. Then why
    are geoglyphs of huge domino grids visible in North America via satellite imagery? Google Map: "Diamond Lake, Oregon" When you arrive at the lake scroll to the left (west). In a very short distance you will see at least two and possibly three domino grids. The 2 (two) and the 5 (five) domino tile grids are very clear. The 1 (one) tile above them has been severely degraded but the one dot in the middle of that degraded tile is still also visible. These images were created in a remote Oregon location by cutting down all the lumber on the respective grids with the exception of the circular stands of lumber left to represent the dots on the domino "tiles". There are those that will claim that this work was done by space aliens. But then why would space aliens be absolutely fixated on symbols and cultural traits that exclusively come from Asia? Why wouldn't they use some of their own symbols? How many more Asian symbols do we need to locate before Western scholars begin to take notice?

  44. Phallic symbols have always played a major role in all Vedic religions from India. These symbols were taken by Buddhist missionary monks wherever they went in the
    ancient world to win new converts to Buddhism. An example of this in China can be
    seen by googling: "Chinese Rock Phallus at Danxia". Yes, these can be found in
    ancient North America as well. Google: "Buck and Mabel's King Kong Dong" "Bust.com Rock Hard Penis" and "Whaweap Hoodoos by Tanya". For the last image
    go to the images section and scroll down until you find the huge two tone penis.
    Also google "Kokopelli and Phallic Symbolism" for the wide use of this fertility character
    in the history of the cultures of the ancient and modern Puebloan people of the Four Corners region of the North American Pacific Southwest. "Buddhist Symbols and Customs North America".

  45. An American Buddhist publication, The Wisdom Quarterly, has recently posted several
    articles on Native American dances that seem to have striking similarities to Vedic Buddhism from ancient India. Google: "Rainbow Dance Wisdom Quarterly" and "The
    Ghost Dance-Native American Buddhism". It's particularly satisfying to witness the
    current involvement of one of the major impacted groups in this discussion becoming
    actively involved in seeking the truth on this issue